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Old time Appalachian music retains some of its Celtic roots, but a unique style evolved relying heavily on double stops (chords) and cross tuning (changing the pitch of the strings to facilitate drones and harmonics). Like Irish music, it uses modal constructs rather than keys.
Not to be confused with Bluegrass invented by Bill Monroe, a native of Kentucky, and the members of his band: Earl Scruggs, Lester Flatt, and Chubby Wise. They developed a hard-driving, intoxicating sound that incorporated anything that they heard that they liked: jazz, gospel, country, rock-n-roll. Together and separately they became national stars; they were sought after for radio, TV, national tours, mustic festivals, and movie soundtracks. The Bluegrass genre remains intensely popular.
"Old Time Music was the heartbeat of Anglo-Celtic Southern America for many generations... [Cecil Sharp, during his 1916-1918 song-collecting field trip] found American variants of many hoary British ballads with impressive pedigrees. Songs scarcely remembered in their land of origin still held a spell over Southern descendants of expatriated yeomen. But the ballad tradition was not static: newer songs of outlaws and train wrecks sprang up alongside old ones of knights and ladies...
"Despite the European background of much of this music and of such instruments as the fiddle, the influence of African-American phrasing and syncopation profoundly affected old time music. (This influence becomes particularly striking when you compare American stringband music to that of Canada, a New World culture which lacked a significant African-American presence.) The banjo is the most obvious legacy of African-Americans in old time music, for the instrument itself is African in origin. It came to white Southerners via the nineteenth century minstrel show... Compared to the banjo, the guitar was both a latecomer and a folk instrument by commercial fiat. It was in the late nineteenth century that such mail order catalogues as Sears & Roebuck made inexpensive mass-produced guitars widely available, and it was by such prosaic means that the guitar and mandolin entered Appalachia." — Mark Humphrey
One day I got tired of not knowing why a fiddle tune with two sharps was not automatically in the key of D or A minor, which meant learning about pentatonic, hexatonic and heptatonic scales and the modal variants which form the structural underpinnings of much of the older old-time music. What I learned is explained in Musical Architectures: Modes, Intervals and Scales on this website.
Typical fiddle cross-tunings include GDAG, ADAD, DDAD, AEAE, AEAC#. This helps the fiddle player add the drones that mark so much of old-time sound. Droning involves playing two strings at once, but the secondary string is a drone and does not change often, as compared to double-stopped notes which can change as often as the primary note does. Cross-tunings do have an effect even if no drone on a second string is attempted; a sympathic vibration is created in the secondary string which enhances the sound.
"In oldtime music the tradition has not been lost, it may be resisting change but it has not been displaced, it is not a modern music. I for one celebrate the fact that oldtime music is not bluegrass or dawg music or new grass or even claw grass (which sounds like an agricultural disease or killer weed). Oldtime works from different tonal centers, it uses open tunings and harmonic resonant overtones and incidentals, it mixes non-tempered scales with harmonization or it's completely modal. Compared to bluegrass or country western its largely dance centered and not song centered, many of its songs are verses to dance tunes, and most of its songs were meant for solo and unaccompanied performance in their oldest form. It is often not strictly symmetrical in its rhythms; a-rhythmic fiddle and banjo tunes are common particularly in West Virginia and Kentucky. Drones, bowed or fifth stringed, are central and not incidental to the music." — Allen Feldman
Rhythmic Modes"[I]n in the United States, most often 'fiddle' means the violin as used in Irish-Scottish-French traditional music and all the descendant American styles: Appalachian, bluegrass, Cajun, etc. On the surface, this kind of fiddle music is technically less complex than classical violin (though sometimes very fast!). Many fiddle players never leave first position. But fiddling calls for great skill in producing the rhythmic and melodic lift originally intended to get people dancing and keep them that way. Even when we're just listening to a well-played fiddle tune, chances are we're moving our bodies somehow – tapping our feet or fingers, or nodding our heads. The emphasis tends to be on rhythmic drive and a steady flow of melody through basic forms, often AABB. This structural simplicity opens up room for variations and impromptu embellishments; the fiddler's artistry lies in the nuanced bowing and subtle variety with which these deceptively simple tunes are spun out." — Gordon Swift
"99% of fiddle novices think it's about the notes when it's really about the bowing. When a fiddler develops the ability to accent and syncopate around the musical beat while borrowing from an arsenal of traditional bow patterns, the fiddler is born. It is a rhythm instrument with notes included." - David Bragger
Clogging while fiddling: Using feet as a percussion instrument is fun for audience and performer. The simplest steps are little more than a shift of weight from left to right in a shuffle rhythm, with the short-short as a pickup to the long (1st and 3rd beat)step: short-short long, short-short long, step-back step, step-back step.
Time SignaturesIgnore the following if you do not read music or if you read music but have developed your own dance-music style.
2/2, 2/4, and 4/4In Old Time music, they all boil down to two strong pulses per measure. It is important to remember that these tunes were usually not transcribed onto paper and then performed; rather, it was more the other way around, sometimes with a gap of decades between the performance and the transcription. In addition, I believe that a key signature is sometimes chosen in order to represent the tune using quarter and eighth notes instead of the more dense and scary eighth and sixteenth notes.
3/4 (AKA Waltz time)Three beats per measure, with the pulse on the first beat. This time signature is less common than the 2/2, 2/4, and 4/4, but if you play a dance, you will need a waltz or two. Warning; the general public will always ask for 'Ashokan Farewell', no matter how incongruous the context. Be prepared.
6/8 (AKA Jig time)Two pulses per measure. Common in New England contra dance, but not in Southern Appalachian music. Explanations that I have seen on the Interwebs include the difficulty of rendering a jig on a banjo; jig rhythms not used in church music, so less exposure; the difficulty of clogging to jigs. I cannot defend any of these reasons, I merely submit them for your consideration.
Bow Strokes"Dr Jimmy Grey told me 'One Stroke, One Note, and that's the scientific way to play the fiddle." —John Hartford.
Saw Stroke: this would be the One Stroke One Note technique cited above.
Son File: the classical technique that plays several distinct notes on one bow has been adapted by fiddle players. Nathan Cole put out a training video on the one-minute-bow (see references) , which is overkill for fiddle players but still useful.
Syncopated 2/4 or 4/4; this can be a good way to kick a somewhat boring reel down the road. Maybe not a hornpipe in the Irish sense of the word, but the syncopated pulse produced by many mandoline and banjo players means the fiddle needs to pulse along too. Dwight Diller describes it as 'I Think I Can I Think I Can.' or the 'Boomalaka': BOOM-ah-LAK-ah.
Circular (or oval) bow pattern: It softens the bite and results in a nice swing at speed. Down-bow is the lower half of the oval; upbow is the top. A flat bridge helps.
Figure-8: on one or two strings. or on two strings, using one string as a base and touching down to another string on the off-beat. The bow moves in a circular or figure-eight pattern (depending on your point of view) (I see it as a figure-8 but I use a very flexible wrist when bowing). The on-beat note is often emphasized with double-stopping.
Slurring into the first beat: a bowing pattern that slurs into the first beat of a measure will soften the texture of the song and make it roll. If your music is written as 4/4 instead of 2/4, you are probably playing it as a 2/4 if you are playing to tempo, so count the pulses rather than the quarter notes.
The Paganini: John Hartford described this as playing three notes per stroke against a 2/4 rhythm. He called it 'the Paganini' because somewhile after John incorporated it into his fiddle playing technique he saw Paganini doing the same thing. This one also slurs into the first beat on most measures.
Double-Stopping: Playing two strings at once is an important part of much old-time music. It results in the violin equivalent of a chord. The technique is often used to emphasize the rhythm.
Bow PatternsLet us make this easy on me. Three types of shuffles covered here.
'Geographical Position of the Southern Appalachians,' from English Folks Songs from the Southern Appalachians, Campbell and Sharp, 1917
Abba Moses, The Way of the Fiddle, 58 transcriptions of old-time fiddle tunes.
David Bragger, Olde-Time Oracle, Sept-October 2008.
David Brody, Fiddler Fakebook, Oak Publications, 1992.
Campbell and Sharp, English Folks Songs from the Southern Appalachians, Archive.org.
Eric Christopher American Strings, website.
Dwight Diller, Dialoging With The Pulse Part One, DwightDiller.com.
EducationScotland.gov.uk, Songs for Primary Schools
Matthew Emmick, Scottish and Irish Elements of Appalachian Fiddle Music.
Maura Enright, Musical Architectures: Modes, Intervals and Scales, BabaYagaMusic.com.
Alan Feldman, Why Bluegrass and Old Time are Not The Same. Web, DwightDiller.com.
Andy FitzGibbon's YouTube page with some of his excellent fiddling.
Titiana Hargreaves, Sally Ann fiddle duet using the Oom-Pah shuffle.
Mark Humphrey, What is Old Time Music, Web, Folkworks.org.
Alan Lomax was famous for his many field recordings of folk music. He began his work in the 1930s, assisting his father with audio recordings for the Library of Congress. In the late 1970s and early 80s, he shot hundreds of hours of performances and interviews in several genres for a PBS series on American folk music. An archive of video of Central and Southern Appalachian musicians from his early 1980s field work is online at YouTube, courtesy of the Association for Cultural Equity, founded by Lomax in 1983.
Old Town School online list of sound files for many fiddle tunes.
Henry Reed collection at the Library of Congress. "Fiddle Tunes of the Old Frontier: The Henry Reed Collection presents traditional fiddle tunes performed by Henry Reed of Glen Lyn, Virginia. Recorded by folklorist Alan Jabbour in 1966-67, when Reed was over eighty years old, the tunes represent the music and evoke the history and spirit of Virginia's Appalachian frontier. Many of the tunes have passed back into circulation during the fiddling revival of the later twentieth century."
Austin Rogers, Dr Fiddle Old Time Fiddle Tunes lists of sound files and transcriptions.
Gordon Swift, Learn the Difference between Violin and Fiddle, StringsMagazine.com, Web.
Pete Showman, Tunes Page, is the gateway to his sheet music collection of over 200 tunes, plus links to midi files. In addition: the Tunes Lists page link at the top leads to a collection of Starter snips of tunes: the key and rhythm signatures and the first few measures for a lot of tunes.
Traditional Tune Archive of N American, British and Irish tunes, formerly known as The Fiddler's Companion.
Appalachian Music, Wikipedia.
Learning, performing and improvising by ear (without sheet music) is an important skill set. The music is expected to come from the heart and in synergy with other performers. Printed music is often provides the initial information about the song for people who have learned to read sheet music, but as the musician works towards performance quality the sheet music will be left behind.
28th of January
Abe's Retreat, A Modal
Angelina Baker (aka Angeline the Baker)
Betty Liken, A Mixolydian
Cluck Old Hen (A Dorian)(Cross tune AEAE)
Cold Frosty Morning A Dorian
Cookoo is a pretty Bird
Cripple Creek in A major
Cripple Creek in G major
Ducks on the Millpond
Ducks on the Pond, A Mixolydian (Henry Reed)
Forked Deer: D to A
Greasy Coat, A Modal
The Gypsy Laddies (Raggle Taggle Gypsies, Black Jack Davie)In this Scottish variation, sung by Jeannie Robertson, the Lord hangs the gypsies after the Lady declares that she will not return to the castle.
Hawks and Eagles
House Carpenter (Daemon Lover)
June Apple: A MixolydianA B C# D E F# G
Kitchen Girl (Henry Reed)(Swap between A Mixolydian and A Dorian?)
Little Pink(Pretty Little Miss?)
Liza Jane in A
Liza Jane in D
Old Joe Clark, Mixolydian (A, E)
Possum's Tail is Bare in D
Pretty Little Dog
Pretty Little Indian A Modal
Quail is a Pretty Girl (A Mixolydian)(derived from Sandy Boys?)
Queen of Earth and Child of the Skies (D Major)AKA Wounded Hoosier.
Rain and Snow (A Modal)
Rock Andy (A modal)
Sail Away Ladies
Sally Ann in D
Sandy Boys (A mixolydian)
Sandy River Belle
Tater Patch (A Mixolydian)
Turkey in the Straw in G
Yew Piney Mountain (French Carpenter)(AAB, no second B part)
Walking in the Parlor
Maura Enright, Proprietor
Author: Maura Enright
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Latest revision: September 2018
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